The Patriarchal Period
[Gen 37 - 56]
Being a son of Jacob’s old age (Benjamin was younger), Joseph is loved more than his other children. Joseph’s brothers are
aware of this and hate him for it. When Joseph is about seventeen years old he has dreams, which he relates to his
brothers. The first of these dreams implies all Joseph’s brothers will bow down and worship him, and the second includes
his parents in this act of worship. Joseph is hated the more for his dreams and his brothers plot to kill him. Reuben
dissuades them, so they strip him of his ‘coat of many colours’ and sell him to some passing Ishmaelites, who take him to
Egypt and sell him to Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh. The brothers cover Joseph’s coat with goat’s blood and show it to
their father, who assumes he has been killed by wild animals and mourns him for many days.
Judah and Tamar
Joseph’s story is interrupted here by a sordid tale concerning his half-brother Judah and his daughter-in-law Tamar.
Judah marries a Canaanite by the name of Shuah and has three sons by her: Er, Onan and Shelah. When Er comes of age,
Judah finds him a wife by the name of Tamar. Er was wicked in the sight of the Lord and the Lord slew him. Judah then
gives his second son to Tamar to raise a child in his brother’s name. (This is known as a Levirite marriage.) Onan isn’t
happy with this arrangement and spills his seed on the ground during intercourse. For this reason, the Lord also slays
Onan. Judah then asks Tamar to remain a widow at her father’s house until his youngest son, Shelah, comes of age.
However, when Shelah is of age, the arrangement is not honoured by Judah.
After some time, Judah’s wife dies and he goes to join his sheep shearers at Timnath. Tamar, hearing of this and resenting
Judah’s treatment of her, discards her widow’s garments and covers herself, puts on a veil and sits in an open place on the
way to Timnath. Judah sees her and, not recognising her, takes her to be a harlot because her face is covered. Having no
means of payment at hand, Tamar suggests he gives her his signet, bracelets and staff as a pledge. Tamar conceives,
returns home and puts her widow’s garments back on. Meanwhile, Judah is unable to honour his pledge because the
‘harlot’ is nowhere to be found.
Three months later, Judah is told his daughter-in-law is pregnant through whoredom, so he demands she be brought to
him to be burned. When he asks Tamar who the father is she produces his signet, bracelets and staff, and the truth is
Tamar’s name is in Matthew’s genealogy of Jesus.
Joseph and Potiphar’s wife
Joseph is now in Potiphar’s service in which God blesses him and all he does is successful. Consequently, Potiphar puts him
in charge of his house and all he owns. Potiphar’s wife takes a liking to Joseph and attempts to seduce him on several
occasions, but each time he refuses her. One day, she catches him by his cloak while trying to entice him to bed. Joseph
pulls himself away and leaves the house, but his cloak is pulled off him. Having his cloak in her possession, Potiphar’s wife
accuses Joseph of trying to seduce her, and Potiphar has him thrown in the prison where the king’s prisoners are held.
Even in prison, God blesses Joseph in all he does and the prison keeper puts him in charge of all the prisoners.
The butler and baker’s dreams
The king of Egypt’s butler and baker had offended the king and were both imprisoned, coming under the charge of Joseph.
In time, they both have dreams, which Joseph interprets. The butler’s dream was of a vine with three branches producing
grapes, which he pressed into Pharaoh’s cup. The baker’s dream was of three white baskets on his head, the top containing
‘bakemeats’ for Pharaoh that birds came and ate. Both interpretations are realised in three days, the butler being restored
to office but the baker executed. Joseph asks the butler to remember him to Pharaoh, but he forgets.
Two years later Pharaoh has two dreams. The first is about seven fat and lean cattle and the second seven fat and thin ears
of corn. No one is able to interpret these dreams. The butler remembers his own experience with Joseph and mentions this
to Pharaoh. Joseph, now thirty, is summoned and announces that it is God who will give the interpretation. Not only does
Joseph explain that the dreams foretell seven years of plenty followed by seven years of famine, but also advises Pharaoh
on how to cater for the famine years. Recognising that Joseph has the spirit of God in him, he makes him ruler of all Egypt,
second only to Pharaoh. Joseph is given Asenath, the daughter of a priest, as his wife. (They have two sons before the
famine comes, Manasseh and Ephraim.)
During the next seven years the harvest is plentiful and storehouses in all the cities are filled with corn. After seven years,
a severe famine hits Egypt and the lands around, and all the people now have to go to Joseph to buy corn from the
Famine and a family reunion
Jacob, also suffering from the famine, sends ten of his sons to Egypt to buy corn, keeping Benjamin at home with him. It is
Joseph from whom they have to buy the corn. Joseph recognises his brothers, but they do not recognise him and he deals
harshly with them, accusing them of being spies while all the time speaking through an interpreter. In pleading their
innocence they mention their youngest brother, Benjamin. Joseph eventually sells them corn, but to prove themselves they
must return with Benjamin. Meanwhile, Simeon is to be held as security. Unbeknown to the brothers, Joseph has their
payment for the corn placed in their sacks. This they don’t discover until they stop to feed the animals, but are afraid to
return and continue home.
When all this is related to Jacob, he refuses to allow Benjamin to go back with them, having lost Joseph some twenty years
earlier and now Simeon, because he has been held captive.
Eventually, they run out of food again and need to return to Egypt. After some argument, Jacob agrees to let Benjamin go
with them and tells them to take gifts and double money to return the money owed from their first trip.
Hearing they have come again to Egypt, Joseph instructs the head of his house to bring them to him at noon to dine with
him. When they arrive and Joseph sees Benjamin, he is overcome with emotion and has to go to his room to weep. After
composing himself, he returns and they sit to dine. Joseph’s brothers are amazed that the table is set according to Hebrew
The next day they leave, but Joseph has ordered their money to be put in their sacks and his silver cup put in Benjamin’s
sack. He then sends his steward to follow them with intent to accuse them and find the silver cup. The brothers deny any
accusation and even offer the life of the one in whose sack the silver cup is found. When it is found in Benjamin’s they ‘rent
their clothes’ in despair and return to the city.
Joseph tells them that the man in whose sack the cup was found will be his servant and the rest of them are free to return
home. Judah begs Joseph to let him take the place of Benjamin and allow Benjamin to return to his father.
Joseph is no longer able to contain himself and weeps. He sends everyone out of the room except his brothers and reveals
himself to them. He tells them it was God’s plan that he should go ahead of them into Egypt so that the family would be
able to survive the famine. Pharaoh hears of this reunion and tells the brothers they are to bring their father and families
to Egypt, and that he will provide wagons and food for the journey.
Israel settles in Egypt
Having heard the good news concerning Joseph, and encouraged by a vision from God, Jacob and his family head for Egypt
with all their livestock. Following an emotional meeting, Joseph tells his brethren to say they are shepherds. Since
shepherds are an abomination to the Egyptians, they will be given the land of Goshen in which to live, separate from the
rest of Egypt but having good pasture. Including Joseph’s wife and children, Jacob’s family number seventy when they
settle in Egypt. Joseph is now able to provide food for all his brethren.
In time, the Egyptians have no more money and have to exchange their flocks and property for corn. By this means Joseph
renders all the livestock and land their king’s property.
Jacob blesses his sons
When Jacob is approaching death, Joseph takes his sons to him to be blessed. Jacob’s sight has become poor, so Joseph
positions his sons in order that the eldest is in front of Jacob’s right hand to receive the firstborn’s blessing, but Jacob
crosses his hands and it is Ephraim who receives this blessing. Joseph objects, but Jacob’s action is deliberate.
Jacob then gathers his sons together to bless them before he dies. After blessing each in turn, he gives instructions that he
should be buried with Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah and Leah.
The deaths of Jacob and Joseph
After blessing his sons and expressing his burial wishes, Jacob passes away. He is embalmed and mourned for forty days
before being taken to be buried with great pomp and ceremony.
On returning to Egypt, Joseph gives his brethren instructions for his own burial.
Joseph dies at the age of 110.
The Exodus and Conquest
[Exodus - Joshua]
Moses’ birth, calling and return to Egypt
The Israelites have grown greatly in numbers and prosperity when a new king reigns who knows nothing of Joseph.
Through fear of their numbers and their might, he puts the Israelites into bondage and their persecution begins. The
population continues to grow and attempts are made to limit their increase by preventing birth or survival of male children.
When Moses is born, his mother hides him in a basket placed by the river bank where it is discovered by a daughter of
Pharaoh. Moses’ mother is paid by Pharaoh’s daughter to nurse him and then return him to her to be brought up as her
When Moses is grown he witnesses a Hebrew being attacked by an Egyptian. He intervenes and kills the Egyptian, but the
next day it is apparent the killing is becoming common knowledge. Moses has to flee and takes refuge in Midian. There he
marries Zipporah, a daughter of Jethro, the priest of Midian, and has two sons by her. Moses keeps a flock for Jethro, and
in time leads them to Horeb where he sees a bush burning, but not being consumed. When he approaches to investigate,
God speaks to him from the bush and tells him he is to return to Egypt, along with his brother Aaron, to deliver God’s
children out of bondage and to bring them to this mountain.
Pharaoh’s opposition and the ten plagues
When Moses first approaches Pharaoh with God’s message it is rejected; Pharaoh’s response is to put a greater burden on
Israel in their slavery. There then follows a series of ten plagues intended to persuade Pharaoh to let the Israelites go. The
first nine plagues are: water turned to blood, frogs, gnats, flies, against livestock, boils, hail, locusts and darkness.
Pharaoh’s heart is hardened following each plague until the most severe, the tenth plague, death of the firstborn, is
announced. Instructions are given by God to make preparations to protect the Israelite households from this last plague,
involving sacrifice of a lamb and the daubing of its blood on door lintels and posts. God calls this the Lord’s Passover and
declares it will become a memorial. When the plague comes, all the firstborn not protected by the lamb’s blood are slain.
The loss of his son is too much for Pharaoh and he finally succumbs. Israel’s exodus begins.
To Mount Sinai
The Israelites leave Egypt with great possessions given by the Egyptians. (These possessions later form the source of
materials for constructing the tabernacle.) They go by way of the desert towards the Red Sea (Sea of Reeds), led by God in
a pillar of smoke by day and a pillar of fire by night.
Pharaoh’s heart is again hardened and he gathers his army to pursue the Israelites. God facilitates the Israelites’ escape by
parting the Red Sea, enabling them to cross between the walls of water while a pillar of smoke and a cloud keep the
Egyptians at a distance. When the cloud disperses and the Egyptians attempt to cross the sea, the waters return and they
are all drowned. Following this deliverance, Moses composes a song to commemorate the occasion.
Moses leads Israel from the Red Sea out into the Wilderness of Shur. After another three days’ travelling without water,
they arrive at Marah, only to find the water there is bitter. Through Moses, God sweetens the water and they travel on and
camp at Elim where there are twelve wells and seventy palm trees. They then travel through the Desert of Sin on their way
to Sinai. The Israelites begin to complain about lack of food, suggesting they would rather have died in Egypt with full
bellies. God then provides sustenance of quail and a daily supply of manna, the Sabbath’s ration being given along with the
previous day’s. This manna is to be their food throughout the forty years they will be wandering in the desert.
Travelling on, they arrive at Rephidim where they are again without water and complain bitterly to Moses. God instructs
Moses to go ahead of the people with some of the elders and strike a rock at Horeb, from which water will be provided.
The Amalekites move to attack the Israelites at Rephidim and Moses sends Joshua with some men to fight them. Victory is
gained while Moses, standing on a hill overlooking the battle scene, holds his staff up high.
Jethro later visits his son-in-law and witnesses the burden on Moses of ministering to all the people. He advises him to
share this burden with trustworthy men, overseeing only more serious issues himself.
The Israelites are now approaching the wilderness of Sinai.
The law is given at Mount Sinai
During the third month of leaving Egypt, the Israelites arrive at Sinai and camp close to the mountain. Following three
days’ sanctification, God descends on the mountain in a cloud of smoke. Moses and Aaron are then summoned to the
mountain to receive the Ten Commandments.
Moses is again called to the mountain where God gives him the laws by which the Israelites are to live. These are laws
concerning servants, homicide, bodily injuries, property damage, social responsibility, and justice and mercy. Laws are then
given concerning the Sabbath and three annual festivals. Moses repeats the law to the people, then is again summoned to
the mountain, this time to receive all the laws on stone tablets. On this occasion he is on the mountain for forty days and
forty nights. While on the mountain, God gives Moses instructions for constructing the tabernacle and its furniture (from
materials to be given by the people), for the design of priestly garments and for consecration of the priests.
The Golden Calf
Because he has been on the mountain for so long, the people lose hope in Moses and persuade Aaron to make a golden
calf and altar, which they then use for worship followed by partying. When Moses comes down from the mountain and sees
their behaviour, he breaks the stone tablets in anger and administers punishment to them. Moses then returns to the
mountain to make atonement for their sin.
The tabernacle is constructed
Moses pitches a tent outside the camp, which he calls the tabernacle of the congregation. Whenever Moses goes into this
tent, a cloudy pillar descends and he and God converse while the people watch and worship from their tents.
Moses later returns to the mountain with two new stone tablets on which God inscribes the Ten Commandments. He is
shown God’s glory, but only from God’s back, and returns with his face shining from His glory.
The people are gathered together and Moses gives them the law concerning the Sabbath, after which the construction of
the tabernacle, its furnishings and the making of priestly garments begins.
(The tabernacle is to be the place where God will dwell amongst His people. At the heart of the tabernacle, in a section
called the ‘holy of holies’, will stand the ‘Ark of the Covenant’, which will initially just contain the two stone tablets on which
the Ten Commandments are engraved.)
When all the work is completed a cloud descends and the tabernacle is filled with God’s glory.
From this point, in all the Israelites’ travels through the desert, whenever the cloud is above the tabernacle they stay
encamped, but when the cloud lifts they break camp. God’s presence remains visible to the people at all times by the cloud
during the day and by a fire at night.
30-Day Reading Plan
This is a 30-day reading plan based on an average of 15 minutes per session - a total read time of 7½ hours.
The actual read times vary from 12 to 20 minutes to accommodate for practical read session end points. If the reading
times don’t suit you, then simply go at your own pace and note where you finished.
Please select your reading day below
New Testament History Books -
Old Testament History Books -
New Testament Epistles -
The Prophets -
The Poetry Books -