Daniel and his friends taken captive
During the first captivity of Jews from Jerusalem, when Nebuchadnezzar besieged the city, among those taken captive with
the sole purpose of being trained for service to the king are Daniel and three of his companions: Hananiah, Mishael and
Azariah. The four are given the names Belteshazzar, Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego by the prince of eunuchs in whose
charge they have been placed. The trainees are provided with a daily portion of the king’s meat and wine. In fear of
defiling himself, Daniel abstains from the king’s provision but, to gain approval and prove himself and his companions,
agrees they should live on water and pulse for ten days. When the ten days are up, the four young men appear in better
health than those eating the king’s meat. Their abstinence then accepted, they continue their training and grow in wisdom
and understanding, to the extent that the king judges them to be ten times more knowledgeable than all the magicians
and astrologers in his realm.
After the young men’s three years of training, Nebuchadnezzar has a dream that troubles him, yet he appears to forget its
content. He calls on his wise men to tell him what the dream was and then to interpret it, threatening death if they do not,
but great rewards if they do. They naturally say the demand is unreasonable, which angers the king and he orders their
execution. As they are numbered amongst the wise, this puts Daniel and his companions in danger, so Daniel approaches
the king to ask to be given time to divulge and interpret the dream. Following prayer, Daniel is shown the dream in the
night and is able to relate it to the king the next day, and its interpretation concerning the four kingdoms, or empires, and
God’s everlasting kingdom. Daniel rightly gives credit to God for the interpretation. Nebuchadnezzar rewards him with gifts
and promotes him to rule over the whole province of Babylon, and chief of the governors over all the wise men of Babylon.
At Daniel’s request, his three companions are made his deputies.
The fiery furnace
Nebuchadnezzar has an image made of gold having a height of 60 cubits (approximately 90 ft or 27 m) and a breadth of 6
cubits (approximately 18 ft or 5.4 m). He convenes a large assembly for the dedication of the image, led by all his princes,
governors and officers. A proclamation is given that every person must fall down and worship the image when they hear
the sound of music, under pain of death by fire. Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego are seen disobeying this command and
are reported to the king, who summons them for questioning. They admit their disobedience and refuse to comply, putting
their trust in God. In anger, the king orders the furnace to be heated to seven times hotter than usual, and for the three to
be cast into it. The heat is such that it kills the men casting them into the furnace, but the king is then astonished to see
the three men with a fourth walking around in the fire. Nebuchadnezzar says, ‘The form of the fourth is like the Son of
God.’ He calls the men from the furnace and they emerge completely unscathed, leading Nebuchadnezzar to give praise to
God and decree that no person is to speak against the God of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego. If they do, then they will
be executed and their property destroyed. The three are then restored to the positions held before they were accused and
given more responsibilities.
Nebuchadnezzar is the author of this chapter, which in his words is a testimony of the signs and wonders that the high God
hath wrought toward me.
Nebuchadnezzar has another dream; this one troubles him and even makes him afraid. His wise men are unable to
interpret it, so he calls on Daniel and relates the dream to him. Daniel is astonished by the dream, as the interpretation is
that Nebuchadnezzar will lose his mind for seven years in order that he will come to know that God is all powerful. He will
then be restored to his position as king of Babylon.
After a year during which nothing happens, and while the king is reflecting on his achievements, he is struck down just as
the dream foretold, and is reduced to behaving like an animal. After seven years in this mental state, Nebuchadnezzar’s
mind is healed and he gives praise to God. His position is restored with more honour than before, and in his praise of God,
he recognises that God will deal with the proud.
The writing on the wall
Many years later Belshazzar holds a great feast for a thousand of his lords, during which he calls for and uses the gold and
silver vessels that had been taken from the temple by his father. While they are praising the gods of gold, silver, brass, iron
and wood, a hand is seen writing a message on the wall. This terrifies the king and he sends for his wise men, but they are
unable to interpret the message. His distress grows and is visible to all, so much so that his mother recommends he
consults Daniel, who is then sent for. Daniel is promised a great reward if he can interpret the writing, but he declines the
offer, praises the king’s father but charges the king with pride, idolatry and profaning the vessels from the temple. Daniel
then interprets the writing, which is a short condemnation of Belshazzar and an announcement that he is to lose his
kingdom. Daniel is given the rewards promised and is made third ruler in the kingdom. That night the city is invaded and
Darius the Mede takes the kingdom.
Daniel and the lions’ den
Because of the excellent spirit that was in Daniel, Darius promotes him to be over all the presidents and princes in his
kingdom. Daniel’s high position causes envy amongst Darius’ officials and they seek to be rid of him, but can find no fault.
Their only means would be through his faithfulness to God, so a plot is hatched to bring about his death. They approach
Darius with a decree that whosoever shall ask a petition of any god or man for thirty days, save of thee, O king, he shall be
cast into the den of lions. Darius agrees to sign this decree and having done so, under the Mede and Persian law, it cannot
be revoked, even by the king. Daniel, despite knowing of this decree, continues with his daily prayers at his window, which
faces east towards Jerusalem. His praying is seen and reported with the intended consequence that Daniel has to be
thrown in the lions’ den. Precautions are put in place to prevent Daniel being helped or rescued, and the king spends a
sleepless night worrying about Daniel’s fate. In the morning he goes straight to the den and finds Daniel safe. He then
orders Daniel’s accusers and their families to be cast into the den, and makes a decree that all are to fear the God of
Daniel. Daniel continues to prosper throughout the reigns of Darius and Cyrus, and sees some of his people being returned
to Jerusalem by the decree of Cyrus.
Daniel is not known to have returned to Jerusalem and the timing and nature of his death are not recorded.
[Ezra to Nehemiah]
The Decree of Cyrus and the first body of people to return to Jerusalem
In Cyrus’ first year of reign in Babylon, God stirs up his spirit in order that Jeremiah’s prophecy might be fulfilled [Jer 25:12
& 29:10]. (Although not explicitly stated, it seems probable that Cyrus was shown an excerpt from Isaiah (44:27–45:6)
that mentions him by name and prophesies the manner of his taking of Babylon.) Consequently, he makes a proclamation
to permit the Israelites to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the temple. Those choosing to return on this occasion with
Zerubbabel, the head of Judah, are supplied with silver, gold, goods and beasts by those around them. Also, Cyrus gives
them the treasures from the temple that Nebuchadnezzar had originally taken from them. Forty-two thousand three
hundred and sixty people return to Jerusalem, along with seven thousand three hundred and thirty seven servants and
maids. Amongst those who return is Ezra, a priest and descendant of Aaron [Neh 12:1].
The temple is rebuilt
Having now returned from their captivity, the first thing the Israelites do is to reinstate their sacrifices, offerings and
festivals appropriate to the time of year. They then pay the workers for their labour and some of the materials required to
build the temple. The foundations are laid to the joy of all the people, although the older men who remembered the beauty
of the original temple weep. The Samaritans offer to help in building the temple, but their offer is refused, so they
continually make trouble for the Israelites, hampering their building work. In time, the Samaritans send a letter to
Artaxerxes, king of Persia, with all kinds of accusations against them. Consequently, Artaxerxes commands the Israelites to
stop building the temple.
In the second year of Darius’ reign (this is a later Darius than that of Daniel’s time) the prophets Haggai and Zechariah
encourage the Israelites to resume building the temple, despite some questioning of their authority to do so. Their
response to the questioning prompts a letter to Darius to confirm Cyrus’ decree. Darius searches for the decree, finds it
and issues a fresh one confirming the authorisation to build the temple, ensuring expenses for the building. Offerings are
provided, and a warning of punishment to those who oppose the decree. The building of the temple is consequently
completed over the next four years, is solemnly dedicated to God and the Passover celebrated by all the people.
The Decree of Artaxerxes and the second body of people to return to Jerusalem
Having returned to Babylon at some point, Ezra now prepares to go to Jerusalem for a second time with an intent to teach
and re-establish the priestly system of judges and God’s laws to the people of Israel. A decree is received from the king to
this effect and to provide Ezra with the financial support he needs. Ezra travels around the land to encourage those who
had not previously taken advantage of Cyrus’ decree to now consider returning to Jerusalem with him under the decree of
When the people are gathered together, Ezra sends for the Levites; then fasting and prayer are proclaimed to seek God’s
blessing for a safe journey. The journey (circa 458 B.C.) takes four months, during which confrontation with any enemy is
avoided. They all arrive safely and offerings are made to God to give thanks for the journey. Then the king’s commissions
are delivered to his lieutenants and governors, allowing Israel to return to their full way of spiritual life.
The problem of mixed marriages is resolved
Ezra is told by some of the princes of Israel that many of the Israelites have married foreign wives, expressly forbidden by
their law [Deut 7:1]. Ezra is so grieved and distressed at hearing this that he sits astonished for most of the day. He then
confesses their sins to God with shame and embarrassment. Such is the depth of Ezra’s remorse that many people hear of
it and gather at the temple to weep with Ezra.
Shechaniah, the son of Jeheil, proposes that those who have married foreign wives should divorce them and separate
themselves from them and their children. This is agreed and people are appointed to oversee the separations, which take a
full three months to complete. Those who separate from their foreign wives and children are recorded in the book of Ezra.
Esther becomes queen
Sometime later, Ahasuerus, king of Persia, holds a great feast for all the dignitaries of his kingdom. This feast lasts for 180
days, after which a feast is then held for his people for seven days. At the same time a feast is held by Vashti, the queen,
for the women. On the last day of the feast, Ahasuerus sends for Vashti to be brought before him unveiled so that he could
show off her beauty, but she refuses. To appear before the men unveiled was not the done thing, but for Vashti to refuse
her king was a problem in that she might be an example to other women. At the advice of his councillors, the king deposes
his queen and publishes an order throughout his provinces that every man is ruler in his own house.
Later, the king’s wrath is appeased and his thoughts return to Vashti, but his decree against her is irreversible.
Consequently, the decision is made to bring many fair virgins from throughout his kingdom in order that he can select a
Serving at court at this time is a Benjamite by the name of Mordecai. He had brought up a young woman by the name of
Esther, also a Benjamite, because her parents had died. Mordecai ensures Esther is included in the virgins given into the
custody of Hegai, the keeper of the women. Esther is told by Mordecai not to reveal she is a Jew. It is twelve months
before Esther is taken to the king when she is then chosen by him to be his queen.
Sometime later, while sitting at the king’s gate, Mordecai overhears a plot by two men against the king, which he relates to
Esther that she might inform the king. The matter is investigated and the two are hanged for their treason.
Haman and the decree to destroy the Jews
Ahasuerus later promotes the Agagite Haman above all other officials, and all other servants at court are now required to
bow down before him. But Mordecai does not bow, and when pressed says it is because he is a Jew. Haman is so angered
by Mordecai’s attitude that he seeks to destroy all the Jews throughout the whole of Ahasuerus’ kingdom. Haman
persuades the king that the Jews are a problem because they obey their own laws and not his, adding that he would offer a
large reward, which would eventually compensate for any loss of revenue to the king. Ahasuerus gives him the necessary
authority and lots, called Par, are cast daily to establish when this should take place, with the date eventually determined
to be twelve months later. It is about five years after the king’s marriage to Esther that the decree is sent out, not without
causing some bewilderment and concern in the city.
Mordecai persuades Esther to help
On hearing of the decree, Mordecai is naturally greatly distressed, as are all the Jews throughout the provinces, audibly
expressing his grief in sackcloth and ashes outside the king’s gate. Esther hears of Mordecai’s distress, and through her
chamberlain Hatach, whom she sends to enquire of Mordecai, the edict is discovered. Mordecai insists Esther should go to
the king to plea for the Jews, but it is a law that none can enter the king’s chamber without being invited. If they do, and
the king does not accept the uninvited intrusion, then the penalty is death. Esther had not been called before the king for
thirty days, but Mordecai insists that she must approach him, for neither of them would escape the edict, so she would die
anyway. He also suggests that she may well be in the position she is for such a time as this: to protect the Jews. Esther
agrees and tells Mordecai to have all the Jews fast for three days, then she will go to the king and if she should perish,
then she will perish.
So Esther approaches the king who does indeed hold out his sceptre towards her, signalling his acceptance of her
approach. He asks the nature of her petition, offering anything she wishes up to half of his kingdom. At this time, Esther
simply invites the king and Haman to a banquet of wine she has prepared for them that day. This they do and the king
asks again what it is that Esther wants of him. She requests that he and Haman attend another banquet the next day, then
she will tell him her petition.
Haman leaves the banquet full of joy because he is the only one next to the king whom the queen has invited to another
banquet. As he leaves court, he again sees Mordecai who refuses to bow before him. Haman, full of his own importance, is
in too much of a hurry to concern himself with Mordecai. He is too keen to get back to his family and relate the degree to
which he is now considered above all others except the king, and what glory, riches and honour this has brought him. He
then reflects on how this is all belittled by the behaviour of Mordecai. His wife and family encourage him to construct a high
gallows on which to hang Mordecai, ready for the permission to do so, which will surely be granted to him at the banquet
the next day. And so the gallows is built in preparation.
The plan to counter the decree
During that night Ahasuerus is unable to sleep, so he calls for the book of records to be brought and read to him. During
the reading, the act of Mordecai in bringing to light the plot against the king is read, and Ahasuerus asks what reward
Mordecai has received, to which the answer is none. The king asks who is in court. Haman is there, waiting to speak to the
king concerning the hanging of Mordecai, so he is asked to approach the king. Ahasuerus asks Haman what he considers
he should do for a man he delights to honour. Thinking the king would not want to be honouring any other man above
himself, Haman advises an elaborate display of honour, to which the king agrees and immediately orders Haman to do all
that he said for Mordecai. This he does exactly as ordered, but then goes to his household to tell of all that had happened.
His family come to realise that his downfall could be imminent. While they are talking, the king’s chamberlains arrive to
hasten Haman to the banquet prepared by the queen.
At the banquet Esther is again asked by the king what it is she desires of him. She replies that she simply wants her life
and the lives of her people, for they have been sold for destruction. The king, amazed at her request, asks who would dare
to initiate such a vile thing, to which Haman is named.
Ahasuerus is so shocked he has to leave the room for a moment. While he is out, Haman, fearing for his life, falls before
the couch on which the queen is reclining. At that moment, the king returns, misconstrues the situation and orders Haman
to be hanged on the very gallows that had been prepared for Mordecai. Ahasuerus gives all Haman’s estate to Esther, and
Mordecai is made steward over the estate. But the decree set in place to destroy the Jews, once made by the king, cannot
be reversed in Persian law. To overcome this, a new decree is made giving the Jews authority to defend themselves and
even to slay those who rise against them.
The Jews survive the decree
On the day set for the decree to destroy the Jews, they gather together to defend themselves as authorised by the king. In
that day they kill Haman’s ten sons and five hundred of his men, and in the provinces they kill 75,000. The next two days
are kept as a festival and established as such by Esther and Mordecai, known today as Purim.
Mordecai has now become second in the kingdom after the king and highly respected by the Jews, seeking their good
welfare from his newly acquired position.
Nehemiah obtains permission to go to Jerusalem to rebuild the city
About eleven years after Ezra had gone to Jerusalem, Nehemiah, a cup bearer to the king at the palace, hears of the
harassment and distress suffered by the Jews in Jerusalem, because their walls and gates are still in the same condition as
when Nebuchadnezzar had left them, broken and ineffective. Nehemiah is distressed at this and takes to fasting and
prayer. When he next serves the king in his role as cup bearer, his unusual state of melancholy is recognised by Artaxerxes
who asks him what his problem is, and how he can help. Nehemiah tells of the plight of the Jews and requests permission
to return to Jerusalem to rebuild it, and to be given letters of confirmation. He also requests that wood be provided for
building the gates. All this is granted and Nehemiah sets off for Jerusalem with some of the king’s men to protect him.
The walls and doors are rebuilt
After being in Jerusalem for three days, Nehemiah secretly sets out to survey the city walls and gates. When his survey is
complete, he tells the Jews of his mission and the support he has from Artaxerxes. The building work then begins,
notwithstanding scoffs and threats from their enemies. The names of all those contributing to the work are recorded by
Their enemies continue to mock them, but no response is given to their mocking other than Nehemiah’s prayers. When the
work is seen to continue, their enemies conspire to hinder their progress by force. Nehemiah provides for a defence, both
spiritual in prayer and physical in arming one half of the builders to protect the other half if the need should arise, with a
strategy to ensure their protection.
Now the poorer Jews complain of the burden they are carrying in purchasing and supplying food for their families while the
building work is continuing. Some are even having to mortgage their properties to richer Jews. Nehemiah is angry at this
revelation and rebukes the rich for lending money and charging the borrowers. They are convicted before an assembly and
agree to return all properties to their owners. Nehemiah sets an example by supporting himself and his family at his own
When the Jews’ enemies see the wall has been rebuilt (the gates are still to be completed at this time), they request a
meeting with Nehemiah at a named place. He refuses, being suspicious of their motives. They write to Nehemiah four
times, but each time he refuses. A fifth letter is sent suggesting Nehemiah and the Jews with him would be treated as
rebels by his neighbours, since the building of walls and rumours going around that he would be made king imply such.
This letter is also rejected. False prophets are then employed to advise Nehemiah to flee to the temple for safety, advice
that is rejected.
The work is completed after just fifty-two days, all the while there being secret correspondence between Nehemiah’s
enemies and some dissenters from amongst the Jews.
The wall and gates now being completed, Nehemiah appoints two people to take charge of the city, with instructions to
take special care about opening and shutting the gates.
The city is much larger than that needed for the current inhabitants, so Nehemiah prepares for population growth by
providing the genealogy of all those now resettled there. Details are also given of freewill offerings made for the restoration
Ezra brings about a revival
All the people gather together asking Ezra to read the book of the law, which he does from a pulpit. He has thirteen Levites
in the pulpit with him, and together they spend the morning reading and expounding the law. Learning of the degree of
God’s standards required of them, they are overwhelmed with grief, but are encouraged to observe the Feast of
Tabernacles, which is now due. This they do and observe it strictly, including the making of booths, which had not been
done since Joshua’s time.
The people’s repentance is then demonstrated in their fasting in sackcloths and earth upon them, their confession of sins,
worship and prayer. The Levites then offer a long prayer in which they recall God’s acts in creation, and the time from the
call of Abraham until the present day. They recognise the good things that God did, the transgressions of the people and
the Lord’s correction of them. Because of all this they make a covenant, which is written down, signed and sealed by many.
They covenanted to observe the law of God with specific mention of not to marry Gentiles, to keep the Sabbaths weekly
and to make tithes and offerings for the service of the temple.
The dedication of the wall
The people encompass Jerusalem with two processions on the wall, Nehemiah with one procession and Ezra with the other,
making their way in opposite directions, each led by a choir. When they meet halfway round the wall, in the temple area,
there is thanksgiving followed by sacrifices offered in the temple. The whole occasion is one of great joy.
Further abuses and reforms
Nehemiah had been governing Jerusalem for about twelve years when he returned to the court of Artaxerxes in Babylon.
Sometime later he comes back to Jerusalem to find certain abuses have arisen in his absence.
Some temple quarters had been profaned and polluted by allocating them to Tobiah, an old enemy of Nehemiah’s and a
non-Jew. Nehemiah has Tobiah and all the furnishings removed, and rooms returned to their former use. He restores the
income due to the Levites, which had not been given to them. He puts a stop to the breaking of Sabbath laws by closing
the city gates and preventing traders from entering on the Sabbath, threatening them should they attempt to trade on the
Sabbath again. He also puts a stop to the taking of foreign wives, a practice that has again arisen to the extent that
children have learned a foreign language rather than their own.
In all these abuses, Nehemiah adopts strong measures against the offenders.
30-Day Reading Plan
This is a 30-day reading plan based on an average of 15 minutes per session - a total read time of 7½ hours.
The actual read times vary from 12 to 20 minutes to accommodate for practical read session end points. If the reading
times don’t suit you, then simply go at your own pace and note where you finished.
Please select your reading day below
New Testament History Books -
Old Testament History Books -
New Testament Epistles -
The Prophets -
The Poetry Books -